How Will Twitter’s Birdwatch Group Debunking Really Work?


It’s clear that Twitter vice chairman of product Keith Coleman genuinely believes in Birdwatch, the platform’s community-based debunking function that can be increasing to 50% of U.S. customers this week. The function has been met with skepticism by some, who fear dangerous actors will misuse it and fill the social community with much more misinformation.

Coleman has heard all of it earlier than. Probably the most frequent questions he’s obtained is: Will Birdwatch be exploited?

“Everyone seems to be so used to issues on the Web being trolled or manipulated, and so they understandably surprise or fear whether or not this can be,” Coleman, the Twitter exec who has led the event of Birdwatch, informed Gizmodo in an interview on Wednesday. “So, that’s actually been an enormous a part of our focus.”

This has been a giant week for Birdwatch, Twitter’s newest effort to handle misinformation. Apart from unveiling a brand new high quality assurance system, Twitter has additionally introduced that notes from Birdwatch contributors will begin exhibiting up in a bigger variety of customers’ timelines within the U.S. Birdwatch depends on its hundreds of nameless unpaid contributors—there are at present 15,000, though Twitter plans to onboard as much as 1,000 extra every week going ahead—so as to add contextual notes to tweets to cease the unfold of misinformation.

Particularly, Coleman factors out that Birdwatch is ready to sort out probably deceptive content material that might not be addressed by Twitter’s insurance policies or is in a grey space. As an illustration, does that tweet actually comprise the trailer for this new TV present? Is that bat actually the scale of a human or was the image taken from an odd angle?

It’s sort of like Wikipedia, however for Twitter. The notes are written “by the individuals and for the individuals,” as the corporate describes it. That doesn’t imply that the notice that’s the most well-liked wins, although. As defined by Coleman, Birdwatch makes use of what’s often known as a “bridging algorithm,” which selects content material from individuals with a variety of views who’ve disagreed up to now. The logic behind this, in response to Coleman, is that if content material is being advisable by of us who’ve haven’t seen eye to eye, it’s prone to be useful to a large group of individuals.

And Twitter believes Birdwatch is useful. The corporate says that customers are 15-35% much less prone to like or retweet content material that has a useful Birdwatch notice, which means that misinformation is certainly taking place. Moreover, and I assumed this was particularly promising, customers on Twitter have been 20-40% much less prone to agree with the substance of a probably deceptive tweet after studying a Birdwatch notice about it, no matter whether or not they establish as Democrats, Republicans, or Independents.

But, it’s not straightforward to manage the unfold of misinformation on social media. Many platforms, together with Twitter, have holes or weaknesses of their approaches. Birdwatch is not any totally different, because the Washington Publish reported this week. The outlet cited an inner audit that discovered that Birdwatch had accepted an “overt” QAnon supporter as a contributor.

The information alarmed misinformation consultants that spoke to Gizmodo, a few of whom warned that letting unvetted individuals into Birdwatch may have severe penalties. Standards to develop into a contributor are lax, which Twitter says is by design. All you want is to have a verified telephone quantity from a serious U.S. service; guarantee your account has not just lately damaged any of Twitter’s guidelines; and have an account that’s greater than 6 months previous.

“Birdwatch is a good suggestion if and provided that members are correctly vetted. That doesn’t imply they need to all maintain a singular ideological perception system–it’s essential that the system be as honest and unbiased as attainable–however members ought to ideally have demonstrable data of tips on how to detect false/deceptive info,” Sara Aniano, a disinformation analyst with the Anti-Defamation League, informed Gizmodo by way of e mail on Thursday. “If that isn’t taking place, then this might have severe penalties.”

The truth that an overt QAnon believer was on Birdwatch “is symptomatic of a typical ailment we see immediately: The false declare that conspiracy theories aren’t dangerous except they’re widespread,” Aniano defined. Any quantity of conspiracy theories within the system might be dangerous, she added.

Timothy Caulfield, a professor on the College of Alberta who research and actively debunks misinformation on Twitter, mentioned it was worrying that somebody with excessive views was allowed on Birdwatch. Whereas he mentioned he appreciated that Twitter and different platforms are recognizing they should do extra about misinformation, an method like Birdwatch has potential pitfalls.

“I believe that Birdwatch is hoping for a ‘knowledge of the crowds’ resolution–that’s, if sufficient persons are concerned, we’ll get nearer to the reality,” Caulfield informed Gizmodo. “However when misinformation is so ubiquitous, this technique won’t work. I imply, an enormous portion of the inhabitants now believes fairly hardcore conspiracy theories.”

Caulfield additionally identified that dangerous misinformation and conspiracy theories can sneak into a whole lot of locations that Birdwatch tends to handle, comparable to sports activities and leisure. The researcher cited a 2017 examine he coauthored that discovered scientifically inaccurate info associated to Platelet Wealthy Plasma was regularly included in sports-related information tales, which helped to normalize and legitimatize the knowledge.

In response to the information of the QAnon supporter on Birdwatch, Coleman informed Gizmodo that though he had learn the studies, he didn’t know what particular account they referenced. The Twitter exec additional underscored that he was unaware of an incident involving a selected account.

“I believe one actually essential factor for individuals to appreciate is that if one individual may affect the end result of Birdwatch, it wouldn’t work,” Coleman mentioned.

Time will inform. Birdwatch will now be entrance and heart for half of Twitter’s customers within the U.S. Whereas its long-term success remains to be up within the air, I’m glad to see the platform making an attempt out new issues to handle misinformation as an alternative of throwing its palms up within the air and saying nothing might be finished. Nonetheless, I do assume consultants level out a really legitimate concern in relation to the shortage of extra thorough vetting of Birdwatch contributors.

You possibly can learn Gizmodo’s full Q&A with Coleman beneath. The Twitter exec addresses the QAnon person on Birdwatch, feedback on criticism that Twitter is outsourcing content material moderation, and explains why Twitter doesn’t need to resolve which Birdwatch notes are seen.

The interview has been frivolously edited for readability. 

Gizmodo: People who find themselves Birdwatch contributors are looking for info. They’re spending their time contributing to this product. I needed to know, are they getting like paid in a roundabout way, like with a free Twitter Blue subscription or one thing? They’re, in spite of everything, serving to Twitter be a more healthy platform.

KC: Yeah, it’s a very good query. I believe it’s price going again to why we why we began this venture within the first place and why we’re taking this method. For some time now, we’ve had quite a few approaches to misinfo interventions. These embrace, for instance, including labels and annotations to tweets that violate deceptive data insurance policies that Twitter has. And we’ve been learning these and different approaches. One of many challenges that we hear usually is that there are many individuals on the market who don’t need an organization or any singular establishment to resolve what’s deceptive or not and tips on how to annotate it. There are additionally challenges masking the breadth of doubtless deceptive data on the market.

So clearly we have now insurance policies in sure areas round COVID, round civic integrity, round crises, round manipulated media, however there’s a whole lot of different stuff on the market that the standard human dwelling their life on the planet would take a look at and say, like, “Wow, that’s sort of deceptive.” However it could be exhausting to craft a coverage in opposition to these or associated to these [tweets]. Definitely, once you’re working in these grey areas, when persons are already not essentially snug with an organization deciding when to intervene, they could be much less so in grey areas. And so the query we have been asking was, how may we add context to these tweets, significantly within the wide selection of grey areas, in a method that folks genuinely thought was reliable, informative and useful? That was that was the immediate within the problem that led to the concept of Birdwatch.

The inspiration was Wikipedia and different merchandise prefer it, the place you’ve a variety of people who find themselves coming collectively, they’re collectively creating, placing info out on the planet. We thought, effectively possibly, as an alternative of writing an encyclopedia or as an alternative of writing how-to docs on the Web or no matter it’s, individuals may truly add info to tweets. Possibly that may work and possibly that may be extra trusted. Possibly it will cowl a variety of matters in a method that folks would discover useful. Possibly it will be detailed in the entire supply like a whole lot of these assets are. That was the concept and that’s what received us to attempt to pilot this idea.

Our motivation in having individuals do that is actually to attempt to discover a method so as to add context that’s genuinely useful in a method that’s reliable. We expect that typically the extra intrinsic that motivation is for individuals doing that, the higher the end result can be and the extra reliable it’ll appear. So, we’re open to exploring other forms of recognition for contributors. They’re doing a whole lot of work, nice work. It’s clearly having an enormous impact. And so we’re open to exploring a variety of recognition or award for them. However I might say we began with the intrinsic motivation as a result of we predict that’s the almost definitely to provide a consequence that is top quality and that folks belief. We’ve spoken to advisors and others about this and there are challenges that may include extrinsic motivation. We began with the intrinsic, open to exploring extra, however that’s why we’ve taken this method.

Gizmodo: Acquired it.

KC: Another factor associated to recognition and reward. These persons are doing nice work and a few of them are doing a whole lot of it, and we would like them to really feel the facility of that. They’re having an affect and we would like them to understand it.

After we first launched the product, clearly only a few individuals have been seeing the notes. Contributors would know that their notice had been rated useful, however they wouldn’t know a lot past that. And now, as we scale up the service, many individuals are seeing a few of these notes. There’s lots of of hundreds or close to 1,000,000 individuals seeing a number of the notes already within the pilot, even at our present part. We needed the contributors to really feel that like, “Hey, I wrote this notice and 100,000 individuals noticed it,” or “I helped price this notice and a 100,000 individuals noticed it.” So, we’ve truly began counting these views and sending [them] to the individuals who’ve written the notes or helped price the notes to once more fulfill that intrinsic motivation that we all know they’ve.

We do hear time and again that the explanation these persons are right here is as a result of they need to get info out on the planet that helps individuals keep knowledgeable, and so we predict that’s an avenue to a minimum of fulfill that core motivation that they’ve.

Gizmodo: When it comes to policing misinformation, there have been 15,000 individuals within the Birdwatch pilot, a quantity that’s now going to vary since you all are going to open it as much as much more individuals. What would you say to individuals who critique Twitter and say that it’s outsourcing content material moderation?

KC: The important thing to us right here is that that is empowering the individuals to make the choices for themselves collectively about what warrants further context and what that context says. Our focus isn’t on who’s doing the work, it’s on how we get info [on Twitter] in a reliable and honest method that folks discover informative. It’s actually about empowering individuals and handing over the choice. The primary focus isn’t about handing over the work, if that is smart.

[Here’s] one other method to have a look at it. Think about there was a crew of workers of 1,000,000 individuals, you’ve received limitless individuals to [enforce content] insurance policies and apply interventions when a tweet is working counter to a coverage. It nonetheless wouldn’t obtain the total targets or potential as a result of there are such a lot of matters and so many tweets that these insurance policies don’t cowl. And so, the one method actually to cowl these grey areas in a method that appears honest and reliable that we discovered is to permit the individuals to try this. That’s actually the main focus.

Gizmodo: I positively see your level and agree that there are numerous sorts of misinformation. I believe the examples you gave of what info Birdwatch can and does handle—Is that basically the trailer for this new TV present? Is that bat actually the scale of a human—are actually illustrative of what we will discover on Twitter and different social media platforms.

KC: I might simply add to that and say that Twitter, the corporate, nonetheless does quite a few different issues with regard to deceptive info. That is actually additive on prime of that as a result of we predict it may assist cowl a broad vary.

Gizmodo: One thing I’ve been interested by is whether or not you all have engaged misinformation consultants in Birdwatch and even the consultants that usually debunk dangerous data on Twitter already, a lot of which I comply with and chat with. Are misinformation consultants concerned in Birdwatch and in that case, who? 

KC: That’s an important query. We’ve a set of advisors who immediately advise the product. We’ve of us from MIT which have studied misinformation and significantly crowdsourcing round this info. We’ve an advisor from the College of Washington who research areas like digital juries, an advisor from the College of Michigan who research design of those on-line communities and techniques, and an advisor from Duke, who research polarization. We’ve additionally labored with behavioral economists on the College of Chicago to assist us design the system. We’ve introduced a bunch of consultants immediately in to shaping the system. When it comes to the consultants on Twitter, the best way we’ve method bringing them into Birdwatch is, initially, making Birdwatch signups open so anybody can enroll. We would like the set of contributors to be individuals who organically are considering doing this, so we haven’t particularly added anybody into the contributor base. We simply let individuals enroll and we have now the people who signed up.

So, there could also be such of us [misinformation experts] in it in the event that they in the event that they resolve to affix. We additionally see that in notes contributors are sometimes usually citing consultants who’re on Twitter. It’s not unusual to see somebody write a notice that provides a bit of data after which cites a tweet as saying like, “hey, that is from CNN’s Truth Checker” or “that is from Reuters” or this from this different individual on Twitter who’s masking this particular story and has this credential. We regularly see even when these individuals aren’t essentially writing the notes, we see the notes referencing their work on Twitter.

Gizmodo: And the way precisely did these consultants that you simply all are working with form the product?

KC: These advisors that I used to be mentioning, they meet with our crew as we’re designing the product. We’ve common, roughly quarterly classes, with our advisory group that comprises a bunch of these tutorial advisors. Others we meet ad-hawk and we’ll normally give them an replace on what we’re studying within the product, what design challenges we’re going through, and so they’ll give us suggestions on both tradeoffs on design selections we’re making or different analysis we should always take a look at to assist us reply key questions or different measures we needs to be contemplating in making selections, for instance. So, they’re serving to type of behind the scenes on the design aspect of the product.

Gizmodo: You’ve talked about earlier than that Twitter doesn’t need to be taking motion on particular person Birdwatch notes or deciding which needs to be proven or not. But, you all have taken a stance and acted on misinformation up to now, as is the case with misinformation labels, selling info in moments, deleting context, and many others. Why is the case totally different with Birdwatch?

KC: Birdwatch has been an experiment with actually entrusting and empowering the neighborhood and the individuals on Twitter to do that. We’ve taken a really clear stance on that with Birdwatch, which is we would like notes to be written by the individuals; we would like the individuals to resolve which of them are useful sufficient to be price exhibiting; and if there are issues with that, we don’t need as Twitter to be taking motion on particular person notes.

We need to be constructing a system that persistently over time will elevate the notes which are going to be in all probability discovered useful. That call and that precept actually stems from the explanation we began it, which is that we all know not everybody needs a single firm to be making these selections. And so, we’ve simply taken a transparent line right here, which is we would like these selections to be made by the individuals who contribute to Birdwatch, the individuals who Twitter serves.

Gizmodo: I perceive that AP and Reuters are collaborating with Twitter on Birdwatch, however how they’re concerned isn’t precisely clear to me. Are you able to discuss extra about their function and provides me an instance of how they’re contributing to Birdwatch? 

KC: We’ve three principal measures we take a look at. One, we measure notice high quality. We need to know that typically notes are efficient and top quality. And so we take a look at issues like, “are they subjectively sound useful by individuals on Twitter?” Or, “do they inform understanding?” So, in the event you see a tweet versus you see a tweet with a notice, do you come away with a unique understanding? If you learn the notice, if the notes are efficient, it is best to come away with a unique understanding. And third, we need to know that the notes are correct.

The primary two, helpfulness and informativeness, we measure with giant scale surveys throughout the Twitter person base. Surveying throughout the political spectrum throughout the U.S. on Twitter, we present some individuals tweets and a few individuals tweets with notes and we get their perspective on helpfulness. They reply some questions to assist perceive whether or not the notice has knowledgeable understanding.

To measure accuracy, we ship notes which have been rated useful in Birdwatch to skilled reviewers, these companions like AP and Reuters. They consider them on quite a few measures, together with accuracy, after which we get these evaluations again. We need to see that typically accuracy is excessive, and if we see that accuracy is low, we examine. If we see it’s persistently low, we’d take a major motion, like we would simply flip off show of all notes till we will determine why there was a difficulty with accuracy.

We haven’t ever had to try this. We’ve not had these points with accuracy, however we all know that one thing may all the time change, in order that’s one in every of our “all the time on” measures to grasp how the service is doing. Importantly, the choice to point out a notice relies fully on contributors’ rankings. It’s as much as the individuals. If the notice is rated useful sufficient, it will likely be proven. It’s after the truth that we that we measure accuracy with companions. After which if we see a sample of points, we’d take motion.

Gizmodo: What’s the largest critique you all have obtained of Birdwatch? How are you addressing it, or have you ever already addressed it? 

KC: Possibly a greater solution to phrase it’s as a query. The largest query we’ve obtained is: “Will this be manipulated?” Everyone seems to be so used to issues on the Web being trolled or manipulated, and so they understandably surprise or fear whether or not this can be. So, that’s actually been an enormous a part of our focus.

The considerations may very well be, “will somebody simply mess with it within the basic manipulation sense or simply trolling sense?” or, “Would it not be biased in a roundabout way primarily based on who’s taking part?” Our focus has been on ensuring it doesn’t have these issues and ensuring that it persistently elevates and makes seen, useful notes which are useful to a variety of individuals throughout factors of view, throughout the political spectrum, throughout totally different factors of view.

We’ve finished quite a few issues to make that attainable, and that’s been a whole lot of what we centered on all through the pilot. On the fundamental layer, there are some eligibility standards that accounts want to satisfy to affix Birdwatch within the first place. You must have a verified telephone quantity. A telephone quantity needs to be from a trusted service, so not simply one in every of these digital carriers the place you will get 100 numbers. Your account has to have been on Twitter for a minimum of six months and it’s important to have had no latest Twitter rule violations. These are meant to be easy standards, comparatively goal, any account that meets that may be a part of. However that already makes it rather more tough to, you realize, price up a bunch of stuff or have a single one who has a bunch of accounts. That’s already offering some energy in opposition to potential manipulation.

Then [this week], we’re rolling out this new system the place individuals should first earn the flexibility to jot down by successfully by their rankings, figuring out notes that a variety of individuals discover useful or unhelpful. In order that’s, once more, one other threshold that accounts want to satisfy to be able to have extra affect within the system. To fulfill that threshold, it’s lower than Twitter or what we predict, it’s as much as the neighborhood. You must contribute in a method that’s discovered useful by the neighborhood. So once more, that the thought processes within the individuals’s palms.

On prime of all that and possibly crucial [measure] is the best way we truly resolve which notes to point out, which is that this bridging-based method. Birdwatch doesn’t use majority guidelines, it doesn’t use most likes, wins or something like that. It identifies notes which have been discovered useful by individuals who usually disagree or who’ve tended to disagree with one another on the idea that these notes are in all probability going to be useful to individuals from a variety of views. These are those we present.

Clearly, individuals should have questions on whether or not that’s enough, and we are going to proceed to watch how that’s all working, however the outcomes are actually encouraging. After we apply all of the techniques, we’re seeing in the actual world with notes, written by individuals, rated by individuals, chosen fully by this course of, we see these notes are persistently useful. They’re informative, they’re informative impartial of get together ID, which is superb. They usually’re informing individuals’s sharing decisions. So, simply by giving individuals info that’s written by the individuals and chosen by the individuals, persons are selecting to not share these tweets as a lot. I believe that it’s sort of superb and proof that this will work and it may overcome what typically seems like overwhelming polarization. There’s a house, although, that lots of people can discover useful and really tells individuals to replace their beliefs and take motion because of this.

I might assume that’s the largest query we’ve had. I think about that will proceed, however we hope the product reveals what’s attainable and that folks, by experiencing it, come to appreciate that this actually can work.

Gizmodo: Given the timing of the Birdwatch enlargement within the U.S., some of us may consider that you simply all are going to lean on it closely to watch and debunk misinformation in the course of the upcoming midterm elections. Is that this the case or will we even be seeing different initiatives from Twitter to struggle misinformation?

KC: Twitter has a complete set of initiatives across the election. Birdwatch may be very a lot as all the time additive to the whole lot else we’re doing. Our rollout may be very a lot pushed by after we assume the product is prepared, so we’re not pushed and don’t set schedule primarily based on exterior occasions. We solely need to develop it after we really feel prefer it’s prepared, after we really feel like the standard is excessive and in addition both that folks will get a profit or will study one thing from the enlargement. So now seems like a very good time. We’ve already been working the service within the U.S. midterm primaries, so we have already got some expertise of how the product performs in elections. We really feel able to be increasing it now.

Gizmodo: Are you able to share a bit about what you all discovered from how from the way it labored within the primaries? 

KC: Typically talking, the primary learnings are that the notes have been useful. The notes are type of forming understanding, they’re typically correct, they’re altering sharing conduct. We’ve seen that be constant for fairly a very long time throughout many various information occasions, whether or not that’s election context or COVID and well being context or Ukraine battle contexts. It appears to provide that output that folks discover useful in many various contexts, which is admittedly encouraging.

Gizmodo: A report within the Washington Publish this week talked a few leaked inner audit that exposed that an overt QAnon believer was accepted as a contributor on Birdwatch. Given the standards you all have set, this isn’t shocking. What’s your response to this information report and to individuals whose notion of Birdwatch could also be tainted, so to talk, over the truth that a QAnon account was on Birdwatch? 

KC: I believe one actually essential factor for individuals to appreciate is that if one individual may affect the end result of Birdwatch, it wouldn’t work. We deliberately are permitting a variety of individuals to enroll and we would like individuals from totally different factors of view to enroll. And amidst that, the system wants to have the ability to present notes which are discovered broadly useful. It has to have the ability to have individuals of all totally different sorts of beliefs and all totally different sorts of motivations in it if it’s going to work.

We’ve centered on tips on how to make that true, and it appears to be true with everybody to this point. Birdwatch is persistently producing useful, informative notes. In order that’s actually our focus. Singular accounts haven’t been a priority and customarily can’t be a priority.

Gizmodo: So, will that QAnon account be kicked out of Birdwatch?

KC: I truly don’t know what account that’s referring to or what that incident is referring to. I’ve examine it, however I’m not conscious of us having an incident with a selected account.

Twitter does have insurance policies broadly associated to what accounts are allowed on the service and there are some associated to coordinated dangerous actions. So, if an account is in violation of that they won’t be on Twitter and so they wouldn’t be in Birdwatch. We comply with the Twitter insurance policies in that regard. Possibly that’s an easier solution to reply that. If the account is allowed on Twitter and it passes the eligibility standards for becoming a member of Birdwatch, then it’s allowed in Birdwatch. We expect that’s an essential factor.

Gizmodo: Do you all nonetheless consider that Birdwatch can proceed permitting individuals into this system with out doing a extra thorough evaluation of them? And do you assume contributors ought to nonetheless stay nameless? 

KC: We expect it’s essential that Birdwatch has individuals from a variety of views in it and we predict it’s essential that Twitter is just not curating who these persons are. We would like that. We would like individuals’s means to take part in Birdwatch and their affect in it to be gained in a good and goal method. We expect that’s actually essential for individuals trusting the method and trusting the output.

To realize that, we deal with making the eligibility standards easy and comprehensible and goal. The account has been on Twitter a minimum of six months, verified telephone quantity, no Twitter rule violations, issues like that. After which, with updates [this week], we’re including one other layer on prime of that the place to achieve extra capabilities, it’s important to have demonstrated helpfulness within the product. We expect it will likely be a reasonably sturdy course of for making certain high quality is excessive. We are going to continuously be monitoring high quality and if we see points with that, we are going to evolve the product identical to we have now with this [this week’s] replace. We’re all the time open to altering the product, however we predict this can be a fairly sturdy begin and the outcomes to this point have continued to be good when it comes to high quality about them.

Gizmodo: Final query. This week is a giant week for Birdwatch. You all are increasing to extra individuals within the U.S., and that’s thrilling. Nevertheless, you even have information studies in regards to the leaked audit, which might generate considerations that Birdwatch might be misused by dangerous actors. What message do you need to ship to the general public in mild of the whole lot that’s occurred?

KC: We expect that is an thrilling new method. It’s a unique method of tackling the issue. We’ve been actually cautious within the design of it and the rollout of it. We’ve sought a whole lot of enter from the individuals Twitter serves, the people who find themselves studying these [notes], the people who find themselves writing and contributing to those notes. We’ve additionally sought enter from tutorial advisers. We’ve run a lot of qualitative analysis research with individuals. We’ve finished a lot of quantitative research about how that is performing, and it appears to work.

The outcomes are to this point actually constructive. It’s discovered broadly useful. It’s informative. It’s informing peoples’ sharing behaviors fully by their alternative. It’s simply giving individuals info to make up their very own thoughts. And so, I believe the proof is within the pudding. I hope that folks would take a look at the product and see what it’s doing and resolve for themselves whether or not they assume it’s useful. Up to now, lots of people have discovered it useful. We hope that many will.

On prime of that, we’ve needed to construct this in a very clear method. Lots of people typically really feel like social media algorithms and techniques are black containers. That’s why we’ve made the entire code that determines which notes to point out publicly obtainable in open supply and GitHub. All contributions are made publicly obtainable in downloadable knowledge information so individuals can audit that. If individuals have questions on the way it’s working or need examine or audit the way it’s working or need to assist us construct it and make it higher, they will additionally try this, too. I might hope that anybody who has questions or needs to dive in deeper would make the most of the assets which are on the market.



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